Part 1.  Policy about academic misconduct

The purpose of a university education is to learn. Cheating, plagiarizing, and other acts of dishonesty do not contribute to learning. They are, rather, attempts to avoid learning that defeat the very purpose of education. They are rightly regarded as both unethical and illegal under the academic standards of The University of Memphis.

You owe it to yourself and your reputation as a student to be well informed as to what constitutes plagiarism and to avoid even the suspicion that you are guilty of it. In addition to the policy statements given below, you should become thoroughly familiar with the document "Advice about plagiarism and using sources."

Definitions, procedures, and sanctions

The Department of History at The University of Memphis bases its policy about academic misconduct on the following statements from the Office of Judicial and Ethical Programs (http://saweb.memphis.edu/judicialaffairs/). These statements are in turn based on more detailed statements in the Code of Student Rights and Responsibilities (http://saweb.memphis.edu/judicialaffairs/pdf/CSRR.PDF), popularly known as the Student Handbook.

Definitions

[These definitions are from http://saweb.memphis.edu/judicialaffairs/dishonesty/definitions.htm]

The University of Memphis Code of Student Conduct defines academic misconduct as all acts of cheating, plagiarism, forgery and falsification.

The term "cheating" includes, but is not limited to:

The term "plagiarism" includes, but is not limited to, the use, by paraphrase or direct quotation, of the published or unpublished work of another person without full or clear acknowledgment. It also includes the unacknowledged use of materials prepared by another person or agency engaged in the selling of term papers or other academic materials.

Academic dishonesty also includes:

Academic discipline procedures

[These procedures are from http://saweb.memphis.edu/judicialaffairs/dishonesty/discipline.htm]

Request for hearing: A faculty member who has good cause to believe that a student has engaged in academic misconduct may request a hearing of the allegation of academic misconduct. A student found guilty of academic misconduct by the Academic Discipline Committee may be awarded a grade of "F" for the course, assignment, or examination at issue and is also subject to additional disciplinary sanctions, including suspension or expulsion. A hearing before the Academic Discipline Committee is conducted under the procedures provided in the Code of Student Conduct. The Committee members are faculty and students appointed annually by the President.

Summary discipline: A faculty member who has good cause to believe that a student has engaged in academic misconduct may choose to exercise summary discipline as outlined below.

A student's grade in the course or the assignment or examination affected by the alleged academic misconduct may be lowered to any extent, including a grade of "F". If a faculty member exercises summary discipline, the faculty member shall notify the appropriate department chairperson of the action. The department chairperson shall notify the student in writing of the faculty member's exercise of summary discipline and advise the student of his or her right to appeal the summary discipline to the Academic Discipline Committee. A student may appeal an exercise of summary discipline by a faculty member to the Academic Discipline Committee.

Multiple acts of academic misconduct: A student who receives more than one "F" as a result of summary discipline by a faculty member may be summoned to appear before the Academic Discipline Committee and may be subject to additional disciplinary sanctions, including suspension or expulsion.

A decision of the Academic Discipline Committee may be appealed by the student to the University Appeals Committee.

Sanctions

[These sanctions are from http://saweb.memphis.edu/judicialaffairs/dishonesty/sanctions.htm]

In addition to receiving a lower grade on an assignment or in the course, including failing the course, the following sanctions may be imposed by the Academic Discipline Committee upon any student found to have engaged in academic dishonesty.

  1. Probation - Probation is for a designated period of time and includes the probability of more severe disciplinary sanctions if the student is found to be violating any institutional regulations(s) during the probationary period.
  2. Loss of privileges - Denial of specified privileges for a designated period of time.
  3. Discretionary sanctions - Work assignments, service to the University, personal or career counseling, tutoring and study skills, essays, or other related discretionary assignments.
  4. University suspension - Separation of the student from the University for a definite period of time, after which the student is eligible to return. Conditions for readmission may be specified.
  5. University expulsion - Permanent separation of the student from the University.

Submission of work submitted in other classes

Papers, reviews, projects, and other written work submitted for credit in another class either at The University of Memphis or elsewhere may not be submitted for credit in any class within the Department of History. The Department regards the submission of such work as academic misconduct, an attempt to earn credit for work that was not actually done for the class, and it will result in the same sanctions as prescribed for other academic misconduct.

TurnItIn.com

The University of Memphis has secured a site license to use TurnItIn to maintain a high level of academic integrity in written work by students. Your instructor may require that you submit written work to TurnItIn.com, which will evaluate that work for originality (or unoriginality), using an extensive database of online documents and previously submitted papers


Part 2.  Implementing the departmental policy about academic misconduct

This document is about implementing the policy of the Department of History about academic misconduct. The policy itself is found at http://history.memphis.edu/misconduct_policy.html.

As a student in this course, you are required to uphold academic integrity in all aspects of the course, especially on examinations and papers, and thus are cautioned to follow the letter and the spirit of the standards outlined in the Code of Student Rights and Responsibilities (available online at http://saweb.memphis.edu/judicialaffairs/pdf/CSRR.PDF). Cheating, plagiarism, forgery, and falsification are serious offenses and will be dealt with according to the procedures outlined in the Code. Sanctions for academic dishonesty may include lowered or failing grades on assignments or the course, probation, loss of privileges, and suspension or expulsion from the University.

The Policy about Academic Misconduct of the Department of History at The University of Memphis (available online at http://history.memphis.edu/misconduct_policy.html) contains definitions of terms such as "cheating" and "plagiarism," procedures for dealing with violations, and sanctions which may be imposed. By taking this course you are obligated to adhere to this policy and are subject to the stated penalties for any violations of academic integrity.

Papers, reviews, projects, and other written work submitted for credit in another class either at The University of Memphis or elsewhere may not be submitted for credit in any class within the Department of History. The Department regards the submission of such work as academic misconduct, an attempt to earn credit for work that was not actually done for the class, and it will result in the same sanctions as prescribed for other academic misconduct.

 

"Your written work may be submitted to Turnitin.com, or a similar electronic detection method, for an evaluation of the originality of your ideas and proper use and attribution of sources. As part of this process, you may be required to submit electronic as well as hard copies of your written work, or be given other instructions to follow. By taking this course, you agree that all assignments may undergo this review process and that the assignment may be included as a source document in Turnitin.com's restricted access database solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism in such documents. Any assignment not submitted according to the procedures given by the instructor may be penalized or may not be accepted at all." (Office of Legal Counsel, October 17, 2005)

 

Part 3.  Advice about plagiarism and using sources1

WARNING

Many students do not understand when and how in their papers they should acknowledge (cite) the use of materials written by others. In high school they may never have been told that paraphrasing encyclopedias or textbooks or cutting and pasting from Internet documents was wrong. But these and other improper uses of sources, called plagiarism,2 are serious violations of University policy (see http://history.memphis.edu/misconduct_policy.html) that could lead to your failing an assignment or a course or being suspended or expelled from the University. Should you commit plagiarism in a work you publish, you could face grave legal and financial consequences. Fortunately, it is easy to learn the rules and apply them. If there is ever any doubt, err on the side of acknowledging your source, or ask your instructor.

While most plagiarism is of written material, the same principles apply to anything produced by someone else, such as a painting or a song. They also apply to oral sources. For example, if you take something from a lecture or from an interview or reproduce a picture, you should cite your source.

As you read and take notes on a source you might later use in a paper, you should write down all the information that you will need for a proper citation. You should be especially careful to indicate if any wording in your notes is a direct quotation. This will save you a lot of effort trying to find the information later on, and more importantly help you to avoid inadvertent plagiarism. See the examples below for the information you will need for various kinds of sources.

The use of sources

The general rule

In your writing, if you use any book (including a textbook, encyclopedia, or other reference work), article, paper, letter, inscription, Web site, song, work of art, or anything else produced by someone else, whether or not it is published and no matter who the writer or creator is--a professional writer, your friend or relative, your roommate, etc.--you must acknowledge this fact appropriately. You must acknowledge the source whether you quote or reproduce it exactly, paraphrase it, or merely use some of its ideas or arguments. You are using its ideas if you follow its organizational structure, even if you do not quote or paraphrase it or use any of its content.

Elaboration on the general rule

Exception to the general rule

Notes about the rule

Bibliographies

Some instructors may require you to have a bibliography at the end of your paper. This should consist of a list of all the sources you used, with the proper information about them.

It is important to note that having a bibliography does not relieve you of the responsibility of citing the use of sources at the particular places in the body of the paper where you used them. If you use endnotes, the bibliography should come at the very end of the paper, after the endnotes.

More information

Following the principles given above carefully will prevent you from committing plagiarism. To understand the problem more clearly and get concrete examples of plagiarism, you should read the documents under the heading of Academic integrity and the problem of plagiarism at the Department of History's Web site on Writing and Literature Resources. Several of them, including the one by the Libraries of The University of Memphis, have tutorials in which samples of student writing are placed alongside the documents they have used to determine whether or not plagiarism has been committed. You may be surprised by the conclusions.

There are many guides for citing the use of the words, ideas, or organizational structure of other persons' writing, by either footnotes (or endnotes) or parenthetical references. Ask--before you write your paper--which one your instructor wants you to use. The point is that, whatever guide you use, you must cite the use of other persons' writing, and you should use the form that your instructor requires.

The most comprehensive guide is The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2003). Most departments of history (we are one of them) use Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed. (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996), which is based on the principles of The Chicago Manual of Style. Your instructor may permit you to use another guide, such as Joseph Gibaldi, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed. (New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2003), or the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th ed. (Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association, 2001).

How to cite sources: footnotes, endnotes, and bibliography

Footnotes and endnotes have the same form; the only difference is where the information about your source appears.

The form of a bibliography is somewhat different from that of a footnote or endnote. The bibliography is in alphabetical order by author, and several items by the same author are listed in alphabetical order by title.

At the end of a passage that uses another source, you should insert a raised number. The first note will have the number "1," and each successive note should have a sequentially higher number. You then will put the actual citation at the bottom of the page (footnote) or at the end of the paper (endnote). Most word processors will do this automatically for you.

Following are examples of the correct form of footnotes/endnotes and bibliographical entries for different kinds of sources, according to the guidelines of Turabian/Chicago Manual of Style. Consult one of these sources for the correct way to cite other kinds of sources, such as movies or theses. For complete information on citation of electronic sources, see the guide prepared by the department's Dr Crouse, http://history.memphis.edu/mcrouse/elcite.html.

Footnotes or endnotes must give the page numbers actually used for the particular passage. Bibliographies give the complete page range of an article or a chapter in a book that is a collection of articles, but do not specify page numbers for a book.

All the examples are for items written by a single author. If there is more than one author of a work, you need to list them all, separated by commas. In all cases the second, third, etc. authors should be listed first name first, then the middle name or initials (if any), and finally the last name, even if the examples tell you to list the first author differently.

Note that after you first cite a source fully in a footnote/endnote, you should use a shortened form. Pick words from the title that are distinctive enough to be recognized. There may be several acceptable ways to do this.

All the examples here are of publications by faculty of the Department of History of The University of Memphis.

Article:

Footnote or endnote: James M. Blythe, "Family, Government, and the Medieval Aristotelians," History of Political Thought 10 (1989): 15.

Subsequent citations: Blythe, "Family," 4.

Bibliography: Blythe, James M. "Family, Government, and the Medieval Aristotelians." History of Political Thought 10 (1989): 1-16.

Note: "10" is the volume number of the journal.

Book:

Footnote or endnote: Peter J. Brand, The Monuments of Seti I: Epigraphic, Historical and Art Historical Analysis (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 2000), 146-53.

Subsequent citations: Brand, Monuments of Seti I, 68.

Bibliography: Brand, Peter J. The Monuments of Seti I: Epigraphic, Historical and Art Historical Analysis. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 2000.

Note: "Leiden" refers to the city of publication. If the city is obscure or ambiguous, include the state or country; e.g., "Germantown, TN:"

Article or chapter in a collection:

Footnote or endnote: Janann M. Sherman, "'Senator-at-Large for America's Women': Margaret Chase Smith and the Paradox of Gender Affinity," in The Impact of Women in Public Office, ed. Susan Carroll (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2001), 97-9.

Subsequent citations: Sherman, "Smith and the Paradox of Gender," 103.

Bibliography: Sherman, Janann M. "'Senator-at-Large for America's Women': Margaret Chase Smith and the Paradox of Gender Affinity." In The Impact of Women in Public Office, edited by Susan Carroll, 89-116. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2001.

Note: Be sure to notice how you should include the editor of the collection. You would follow the same form for a translator (abbreviated "trans.").

Electronic source:

Footnote or endnote: Maurice Crouse, 4 August 2006, Citing Electronic Information in History Papers <http://history.memphis.edu/mcrouse/elcite.html> [9 September 2006].

Subsequent citations: Crouse, Citing Electronic Information.

Bibliography: Crouse, Maurice. 4 August 2006. Citing Electronic Information in History Papers. <http://history.memphis.edu/mcrouse/elcite.html> [9 September 2006].

Note: The first date is the date the source was last updated on the Internet (often you may not be able to find this information, in which case you should skip this part). The date in brackets is the date you used the source. Most electronic sources do not have page numbers. If the source (such as a PDF document) does have page numbers, they of course should be given in the footnote or endnote.

_____________________________

      1Much of this document originated as a guide entitled "Using Sources in Your Papers," written by Dr James M. Blythe for his students. At the time of the writing of the current document, that guide could be found at http://history.memphis.edu/jmblythe/RenaissanceF06/Citations.html on his personal Web site. [return to the text]

      2Webster's 11th New Collegiate Dictionary (Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster Inc., 2003) under the heading "plagiarize" reads: "to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own . . . without crediting the source." The Code of Student Rights and Responsibilities reads: "The term 'plagiarism' includes, but is not limited to, the use, by paraphrase or direct quotation, of the published or unpublished work of another person without full or clear acknowledgment. It also includes the unacknowledged use of materials prepared by another person or agency engaged in the selling of term papers or other academic materials." [return to the text]